The new problem with drug addiction is the rise of substance disorders that has killed many people in the world and the risk of an increase in cases continues to remain high since there has been noted illegal production of raw materials and diversion of the legal use.
The World Drug Report 2019 revealed that 35 million people presently are drug addicts suffering from addiction disorders, co-infections with HIV and hepatitis C yet only 1 in 7 persons seek treatment.
The research captured the period 2006- 2017 to determine the global trends drug use and drug use disorders and recorded people with drug use disorders both illicit and opioids average by 2017.
The rehabilitative services whether in prison or in the general population continue to be not in line with the international human rights standards because they either do not meet the standards at all or they type that meets the internal standards are not available.
“Prevention and treatment continue to fall short in many parts of the world, with only one in seven people with drug use disorders receiving treatment each year. This is particularly striking in prisons. Drug use and its adverse health consequences in prison settings, which suggests that the prevalence of infectious diseases such as HIV , hepatitis C, and active substances tuberculosis, and related risks, are disproportionately higher among prison populations than among the general populations, in particular among those who inject drugs in prison,” WRD 2019 press release.
The use of drugs while in prison is strangely happening. Drug addiction is higher in the corrective facilities across the world than in the general population. Unfortunately, the rehabilitative service for injecting drug users are not easily available in prisons.
In 11 countries they only had one each injecting addict’s rehabilitative services and 83 countries didn’t have any.10 countries have at least both opioid and drugs therapy in at least one prison in the country. 56 have opioid –substitution therapy and 11 have a needle syringe program.
These drug rehabilitation services and programs do not meet the standards to promote recovery and it is worse in prisons where the prisoner drug addicts are left vulnerable to contracting HIV and hepatitis C.
The drug disorders may persist because even though the is a lot of success realized seizing of drugs in the past ten years by up to 74% there is also a rise in manufacture of a drug by up to 50% for opium and cocaine.
The peculiar spread was a note in unexpected areas. Drug benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) was found in waste eater in 78 countries in Europe between 2011- 2018. Drug use in secondary schools was discovered after a crackdown in Egypt and Morocco.
The illegal growing the coca bushes by criminal gangs is another factor of consideration. Drug cannabis is the most popular drug still used for a steady period of ten years now and 188 million people globally use it. It is also found in North America, South America, and Asia.
Cocaine use is on the increase in North America, Western and Central Europe at 18.1 million people affected, with cocaine production done in Columbia producing 1976 tones equivalent to 100% rate and that was in 2017.
The increase of cocaine use in North America after a decline of use between 2006- 2012, and the reports of increase of use in other parts of the world including Western and Central Europe, Oceania, some parts of Asia, West Africa and South America was interpreted by the World Drug Report 2019 as a warning sign that cocaine use could be the next drug being felt with among urban dwellers.
Other drugs being smuggled into the markets are hallucinogens and the most popular drug trafficked is ketamine in East and South East Asia and the market is being expanded to Europe, Oceania and America. The other types of hallucinogen are phencyclidine locally known as angel dust and dimethyltryptamine.
The cannabis market though is on the transition into becoming legal.In the North, America law allows the use of non-medical use of cannabis but there are illegal markets run by criminals who offer cheaper cannabis prices.
The legalization of cannabis is said to have led to the decrease in its use through purchasing on the darknet and led to the shutdowns of darkness AlphaBay, Ansa, Dream Market and Wall Street Market. A survey in January 2018 revealed shutting of AlphaBay and Hansa markets changed the behavior in the society that followed was that 9% stopped using the darknet,15% less frequented the darknet,19% applied operational security changes and 57% were not affected.
The internet, darknet, was being used to facilitate drug addiction by availing a platform to buy the drugs over the darknet. The notorious countries noted included Europe, Oceania, North America and Latin America. The top three are North America, Oceania, and Europe. Latin America had the least number of drug cases reported.
The contradiction is that the most popular illicit drug used for intoxication globally in 2019 which was also popular in 2017 is cannabis and it is used by 188 million people in 2017. Non-medical use of cannabis was also reported where the medical use of cannabis is legal.
The increase of cannabis use is attributed to the non-medical use which some go into good use of making wax, infused edibles, and the making of oil-filled vapourised cartridges.
The greatest challenge though is that drug trafficking routes are known but it is said that for trafficking of cocaine and heroin there are complications because, in a case of America, most trafficked drug heroin originates from the region and not other trade routes outside the region.
The tracing of diversion where legal uses of drugs and how they end up in unexpected areas such as schools and public utility water are difficult to trace.
The Recover is an unbiased substance abuse and mental health news provider. Helping individuals looking for the right treatment programs in their area. Also providing information on drug rehab centers for addiction recovery.
Contact: Everlyne Otieno